Grunt [The Basis]

Lypa, K.A., 2012. Small fortress towns of Podillia in 16th-17th centuries: a frontier of style and fortifications development. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Lypa, K.A., Fine Art Expert, Kyiv, Ukraine.


During the studies of borderland towns-strongholds, the author raised questions about the stylistic affiliation of individual buildings and urban space as a whole. It is convenient to study the fortress towns of Podillia that appeared in 16th-17th centuries because this period of development was the latest and most significant from the architectural point of view. Since the fortresses were destroyed during the confrontation with the Turks in the last quarter of the 17th century, before the end of the first quarter of the 18th century they degraded to the level of small county towns and villages. But the presence of a certain number of buildings and landmarks that survived, and certain layout of streets caused by terrain, allow finding and identifying the stylistic features of the towns of Podillia in the context of world's styles of the age.
We considered the differences between European fortification systems and schools that have been developed simultaneously with Renaissance and Baroque and the basis of their evolution.
41 objects were analyzed to study the implementation of various fortification systems in Podillia. 11 of them were illustrated with plans and photographs. The data was arranged into a table.
The author concluded that the Gothic style remained in monumental buildings of Podillia for too long and mixed with Renaissance, Old-Russian and Byzantine architecture traditions in an amazing way. The churches in Yazlovets, Terebovl, and Gusyatin are mentioned in the article.

Conclusions. The towns of Podillia had an archaic look that did not correlate with the aesthetic principles of the Renaissance and Baroque styles, although they emerged at this age. The features of the Medieval architecture were both in the look of individual buildings and in the image of the city as a whole. The style of buildings and mutual influence of building traditions of different national and religious groups in small towns of Podillia will be further studied.

Keywords. Castle, monastery, tower system, corner tower hexagonal in plan view, rectangular tower, roundel, Old-Italian school, bastion, New-Italian School, Early Renaissance, Late Renaissance, Early Baroque, "belated" Gothic, Gothic Survival, fortress town


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Maul, V.Ya., 2012. "The city of Ignat" in the rebellious vision of Russian peasantry. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Maul, V.Ya., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), Professor of the Department of Humanitarian and Economic Disciplines at  Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Nizhnevartovsk, RF.


The article deals with the poorly known aspects of native history concerned with folk motives and forms of distributing social Utopias in Russia and the attitude of common people to them. The legend about the city of Ignat had been widespread among Cossacks of the river Don and the population of the southern regions of Russia since XVIII century. Based on this legend the semantic analysis has been made of such version of common people Utopian ideas as legend about distant lands. The aim has been set to make it clear that social and cultural meaning of the legend about the city of Ignat is not kept within the bounds of class struggle but it inevitably exceeds their limits. This meaning can be understood only by the recognition of Russian common people ideas close link with religious-symbolic world of traditional culture in the field of which popular social Utopia had been formed. It is shown that social-utopian legend-making has been connected in many ways with Old Believersactivity which had been found wide resonance among common people and Cossacks of the river Don. From the social-politics and psychological points of view it is given the explanation of the departure of Cossacks-nekrasovtsev from native lands in the search for better life. This departure was easier to perform due to the information about vast amounts of unreclaimed lands; experience of popular colonization known throughout the country and rumors about unrestricted life without masters among Cossacks, but the most important thing was the understanding of unrighteousness of contemporary social order. By means of interdisciplinary methodology it is proved that the belief in the reality of the city of Ignat existence made a particular sense to numerous escapes of Russian common people giving them moral and religious approval for their activities. The semantic analysis of one of the most widespread legends during the XVIII-XIXcenturies gives clear evidence that being created by collective consciousness of social lower classes grand Utopia of social paradise on the Earth axiologically disclaimed undevout world of masters as though parodying it as dead artificial caricature on the righteous and real social order. Therefore the city of Ignat insubstantially constructed by the rebellious ideas of common people is a speculative imitation of idealreality. According to the law of mirror symmetry this imitation represents real world as anti-Utopia.


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Ivonina, L.I., 2012. The lifestyle and status of women in Smolensk under the reign of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Ivonina, L.I., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), Professor of Smolensk State University, RF.



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Bondar, V.V., 2012. The military town of Yekaterinodar: the environment and manners of its inhabitants. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Bondar, V.V., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Director of the Western-Caucasus Brunch of the Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage named after D.S. Likhachev, RF.



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Hrybovskyi, V.V., 2012. Buza, horilka and cofee in the men's society of a Crimean Tatar town at the end of 18th–first half of 19th century. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Hrybovskyi, V.V., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Editor-in-Chief of the Frontiere Mista, postgraduate student of the M.S. Hrushevskyi Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies, Kyiv, Ukraine.




Kabytov, P.S. and Kobozeva, Z.M., 2012. A frontier city and its inhabitants (through the example of the city of Samara). Frontiere Mista, 1.


Kabytov, P.S., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), Professor of the Department of Russian History at Samara State University, RF.
Kobozeva, Z.M., postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History at Samara State University, RF.



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Pryharin, O.A., 2012. The "7th kilometer" market: about modern forms of commercial practices in a polyethnic city. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Pryharin, O.A., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Senior Lecturer of the Department of Archaeology and Ethnology of Ukraine at the I.I. Mechnykov Odessa National University, Ukraine.



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Malov, O.V., Veklenko, V.O. and Veklenko, A.V., 2012. Map data sources concerning the History of Bohorodytska Fortress of Starosamarskyi retrenchment. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Malov, O.V., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Research Fellow of the Institute of General History under Russian Academy of Sciences, Research Fellow of the State Historical Museum, Moscow, RF.
Veklenko, V.O., Research Fellow of the Institute of Social Studies, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.
Veklenko, A.V., pupil of the Secondary School no.97 named after P.I. Shkidchenko, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.



Buganov, V.I. and Buganov, A.V., 1992. Polkovodtsy XVIII v. [Military leaders of the 18th century]. Moscow: Patriot. p. 245.

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Goldenberg, L.A., 1980. Use of ancient maps. In: 1980. Ispolzovaniye Starykh Kart v Geograficheskikh i Istoricheskikh Issledovaniyakh. Moscow: Geograficheskoye Obshchestvo SSSR. pp. 3–15.

Goldenberg, L.A., 1975. On the issue of cartographic source studies. In: A.L. Narochnitskiy, ed., 1975. Istoricheskaya geografiya Rossii XII – nachalo XX v. Moscow. pp. 217–247.

Jean Covens et Corneille Mortier, 1742. Theatre de la guerre dans la Petite Tartarie, la Crimee, la Mer Noire. Dressee sur un grand nombre de cartes manuscrites et d’itineraires, rectifies par diverses observations, faites par Guillaume de l’Isle. Amsterdam.

Lavrentyev, A.V., 2005. Yepifan i Verkhniy Don v XII–XVII vv. Ocherki istorii russkoy kreposti na Kulikovom pole [Yepifan and Verkhniy Don in the 12th-17th centuries. the sketches on the history of a Russian fortress at Kulikovo Pole]. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche. 230 p.

Nelipovich, S.G., 2010. Soyuz dvuglavykh orlov: russko-avstriyskiy voyennyy alyans vtoroy chetverti XVIII v. [The union of two-headed eagles: Russian-Austrian military alliance in the second quarter of the 18th century]. Moscow: Kvadriga. p. 188, 193–202.

Repan, O., Starostin, V. and Kharlan, O., 2008. Palimpsest. Korinnia mista: poselennia XVII–XVIII stolitt v istorii Dnipropetrovska [Rescriptum. The origins of the city: the settlements of the 17th-18th centuries in the history of the city of Dnipropetrovsk]. Kyiv: Ukrainski Propilei. pp. 64–65.

Shvydko, G.K., 1998. Cartographic materials of RDVIA as a source of the history of Southern Ukraine. Naddniprianskyi Istoryko-Kraieznavchyi Zbirnyk, issue 1, pp. 92–96.

Veklenko, V.A., 2011. Archaeological examination of the Bogoroditskaya fortress ant its trading quarter: first results. Arkhitekturnoye Nasledstvo, issue 11, pp. 88–101.

Veklenko, V.O., 2006. The analysis of the materials on historical placenames in Nizhneye Posamarye region. In: S.I. Svitlenko, ed., 2006. Prydniprovia: Istoryko-Kraeznavchi Doslidzhennia, issue 3, pp. 206–219.

Veklenko, V., Kovalova, I. and Shalobudov, V., 2004. An archaeological solution of the discussion concerning the location of the city of Samar and Bororodytska fortress. Ukrainskyi Arheohrafichnyi Shchorichnyk, issue 8/9, pp. 190–221.

Veklenko, V.A., Malov, A.V. and Nesprava, N.V., 2011. Bogoroditskaya fortress according to the archaeological and written sources. In: Proc. of the All-Russian Conf. A Late Medieval city. Archaeology and history. Tula, November 2009. Tula: GVIPZ "Kulikovo Pole". pp. 259–270.

Veklenko, V.A., 2010. Natelnye kresty Samari-Bogoroditskoy kreposti [Baptismal crosses of the Samar-Bogoroditskaya fortress]. Dniepropetrovsk: DNU. p. 129.

Veklenko, A.V., Veklenko, V.O. and Malov, O.V., 2012. Samara Pustynno-Mykilskyi monastery: maps and plans of the 18th century. In: Proc. of the Int. Sci. Conf. Dnipropetrovshchyna Turystychna. Dnipropetrovsk: Innovatsiia. pp. 53–59.

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Andreiev, V.M., 2012. Viktor Petrov and his research on criminal folklore. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Andreiev, V.M., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of the Department of World History and Historiography of Kherson State University, Ukraine.



Andreiev, V.M., 2011. Petrov Viktor Platonovych. In: V.A. Smolii, ed., 2011. Entsyklopedia Istorii Ukrainy. Vol. 8. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. p. 190.

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Petrov, V., 1925. Short songs (chastushkas) 1917–1925. Foreword. Etnohrafichnyi Visnyk, Book I, pp. 22–25.

Petrov, V., 1927. The mythologema of the sun in Ukrainian people beliefs and the Byzantine-Hellenistic culture period. Etnohrafichnyi Visnyk, Book IV, pp. 88–119.

Petrov, V., 1928. The new Ukrainian versions of the legend about the origin of impious women. Etnohrafichnyi Visnyk, Book VI, pp. 55–66.

Petrov, V., 1929. Ukrainian versions of the legend about the reproductively-challenged mother and unborn children. Notes of Vynohradskyi, Yu.S. and Tereshchenko, S.M. Materialy do Etnolohii i Antropolohii, vol. XXI–XXII, Part I, pp. 201–214.

Petrov, V., 1930. Kuzma-Demyan in Ukrainian folklore. Etnohrafichnyi Visnyk, Book IX, pp. 197–238.

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Hrybovskyi, V.V. and Starostin, V.S., 2012. Dnipropetrovsk, a familiar stranger. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Hrybovskyi, V.V., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Editor-in-Chief of the Frontiere Mista, postgraduate student of the M.S. Hrushevskyi Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Starostin, V.S., postgraduate student, postgraduate student of the Department of History and Politics of the National Mining University, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.


Book review: Lazebnik, V.I., 2012. Neizvestnaya Yekaterinoslavshchina [The undiscovered Yekaterinoslav region]. Dnipropetrovsk: Dniproknyha.


Novyi Gorod, 2007. And the tram was launched. Novyi Gorod, no. 6 (22).

Novyi Gorod, 2008. Fragrant bunches of robinia. Novyi Gorod, no. 5 (33).

Novyi Gorod, 2008. The Alekseyenko family in the history of the city of Yekaterinoslav. Novyi Gorod, no. 4 (32).

Novyi Gorod, 2009. Cheap and cheerful. Sales in Yekaterinoslav. Novyi Gorod, no. 12 (51).

Novyi Gorod, 2009. Banks of Yekaterynoslav. Novyi Gorod, no. 11 (50).


Konstantinova, V.M., 2012. On the feasibility of change of the foundation date of the city of Zaporizhzhia. Frontiere Mista, 1.


Konstantinova, V.M., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), Professor of the Department of Ukrainian History at the Berdiansk State Pedagogical University, Ukraine.



Konstantinova, V.M., 2006. The issue of determination of population quantity in the urban settlements at the territory of Southern Ukraine early after liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossack Host. Zapysky Istorychnoho Fakultetu, Issue 17. Odessa: I.I. Mechnykov ONU. pp. 162–166.

Konstantinova, V.M., 2005. The issue of determination of population quantity in the urban settlements at the territory of Southern Ukraine early after liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossack Host. In: Proc. of the Int. Conf. Ukrainian Cossacks in domestic and European history. Odessa. pp. 40–42.

Panchenko, V.G., ed., 2008. Discussion. In: V.G. Panchenko, ed., 2008. Datuvannia mista yak problema istorychnoi urbanistyky: yevropeiskyi ta ukrainskyi dosvid. Dnipropetrovsk: Gerda. p. 62.

Vermenych, Ya. 2008. The problem of cities dating in the modern Ukraine: theoretical and legal issues. In: V.G. Panchenko, ed., 2008. Datuvannia mista yak problema istorychnoi urbanistyky: yevropeiskyi ta ukrainskyi dosvid. Dnipropetrovsk: Gerda. p. 12.